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კონსტიტუციონალიზმი

THE CONSTITUTION OF GEORGIA

Adopted on 24 August 1995

The citizens of Georgia, whose firm will is to establish a democratic social order, economic freedom, a Rule of Law based social state, to secure universally recognised human rights and freedoms, to enhance the state independence and peaceful relations with other peoples, bearing in mind the centuries-old traditions of the Statehood of the Georgian Nation and the basic principles of the Constitution of Georgia of 1921,

proclaim nation-wide the present Constitution.

CHAPTER ONE
General Provisions

CHAPTER TWO
Georgian Citizenship.
Basic Rights and Freedoms of Individual

CHAPTER THREE
The Parliament of Georgia

CHAPTER FOUR
The President of Georgia

CHEPTER FOUR1
The Government of Georgia
(is added by the Constitutional Law of 6 February 2004)

CHAPTER FIVE
Judicial Power

CHAPTER SIX
State Finances and Control

CHAPTER SEVEN
State Defence

CHAPTER EIGHT
Revision of the Constitution

CHAPTER NINE
Transitional Provisions

CHAPTER ONE  General Provisions

Article 1

1.                 Georgia shall be an independent, unified and indivisible state, as confirmed by the Referendum  of  31  March  1991,  held  throughout  the  territory  of  the  country, including  the  Autonomous  Soviet  Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and the Former Autonomous Region of South Ossetia and by the Act  of Restoration of the State Independence of Georgia of 9 April 1991.

2.                 The form of political structure of the state of Georgia shall be a democratic republic.

3.                 “Georgia” shall be the name of the state of Georgia.

Article 2

1.                 The  territory  of  the  state  of  Georgia  shall  be  determined  as  of  21 December  1991.  The  territorial integrity of Georgia and the inviolability of the state frontiers, being recognized by the world  community of nations and international organizations, shall be confirmed by the Constitution and laws  of Georgia.

2.                 The  alienation  of  the  territory  of  Georgia  shall  be  prohibited.  The  state frontiers  shall  be  changed only by a bilateral agreement concluded with the neighboring State.

3.                 The  territorial state structure of Georgia shall be determined by a Constitutional Law on the  basis  of  the  principle  of  circumscription  of  authorization  after  the complete  restoration  of  the  jurisdiction of Georgia over the whole territory of the country.

4.                 The  citizens  of  Georgia  shall  regulate  the  matters  of  local  importance through  local  self-  government without the prejudice to the state sovereignty. The office of the superiors of the executive bodies  and a representative office of local self-government shall be electoral.  The procedure of the  creation of the bodies of local self- government, their authority and relation with state bodies shall be  determined by the Organic Law. (6.02.2004, N 3272)

Article 3

1.                 The following shall fall within the exclusive competence of higher state bodies of Georgia:

a)     legislation   on   Georgian   citizenship,   human   rights   and   freedoms,  emigration   and  immigration,  entrance  and  leaving  the  country,  temporary or  permanent  residence  of  citizens of foreign states and stateless persons in Georgia;

b)     the  status,  boundary  regime  and  defence  of  the  state  frontiers;  the  status and  defence  of  territorial waters, airspace, the continental shelf and Exclusive Economic Zone;

c)     state defence and security, armed forces, military industry and trade in arms;

d)     the issues of war and peace, the determination of a legal regime of the state of emergency  and the martial law and their introduction;

e)     foreign policy and international relations;

f)      foreign trade, customs and tariff regimes;

g)     state finances and state loan; issuing money; legislation on banking, credit, insurance and  taxes;

h)     standards  and  models;  geodesy  and  cartography;  determination  of  the exact  time;  state  statistics;

i)       a unified energetic system and regime; communications; merchant fleet; ensigns; harbours  of  general  state  importance;  airports  and  aerodromes;  control of  airspace,  transit  and  air  transport,  registration  of  air  transport; meteorological  service;  environmental  observation  system;

j)       railways and motor roads of state importance;

k)     fishing in ocean and high seas;

l)       frontier-sanitary cordon;

m)   legislation on pharmaceutical medicines;

n)     legislation on accreditation of educational institutions and academic degrees; (27.12.2006 N 4135)

o)     legislation on intellectual property;

p)     legislation  on  trade  law,  criminal  law,  civil  law,  administrative  law  and labour  law,  penitentiary and procedures legislation.

q)     criminal police and investigation;

r)      legislation on land, subsoil and natural resources;

2.                 Issues falling within the joint competence shall be determined separately.

3.                 The status of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara shall be determined by the Constitutional Law  of Georgia “On the Status of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara”. (20.04.2000. N 260)

4.                  The status of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia  shall be determined by the Constitutional Law  of Georgia “On the Status of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia” (10.10.2002 N 1689)

Article 4

1.                 After  the  creation  of  appropriate  conditions  and  formation  of  the  bodies  of local  self-  government  throughout  the  whole  territory  of  Georgia  two  chambers shall  be  set  up  within  the  Parliament of Georgia: the Council of Republic and the Senate.

2.                 The Council of Republic shall consist of members elected after a proportional system.

CHAPTER TWO

Georgian Citizenship. Basic Rights and Freedoms of Individual  Article 12

1.                 Georgian citizenship shall be acquired by birth and naturalisation.

2.                 A  citizen  of  Georgia  shall  not  at  the  same  time  be  a  citizen  of  another state,  save  in  cases  established by this paragraph. Citizenship of Georgia shall be granted by the President of Georgia to a  citizen of foreign country, who has a special merit before Georgia or grant the citizenship of Georgia  to him/her is due to State interests.(6.02.2004.N3272)

3.                 The procedure for the acquisition and loss of citizenship shall be determined by the Organic  Law.

Article 13

1.                 Georgia shall protect its citizen regardless of his/her whereabouts.

2.                 No one shall be deprived of his/her citizenship.

3.                 The expulsion of a citizen of Georgia from Georgia shall be impermissible.

4.                 The  extradition/transfer  of  a  citizen  of  Georgia  to  the  foreign  state  shall  be impermissible,  except  for  the  cases  prescribed  by  international  treaty.  A  decision on  extradition/transfer  may  be  appealed in a court.

Article 14

Everyone is free by birth and is equal before law regardless of race, colour, language, sex, religion,  political and other opinions, national, ethnic and social belonging, origin, property and title, place of  residence.

Article 15

1.                 Everyone has the inviolable right to life and this right shall be protected by law.

2.                 Capital punishment is prohibited. (27.12.2006  N4136)

Article 16

Everyone has the right to free development of his/her personality.

Article 17

1.  Honour and dignity of an individual is inviolable.

2.   Torture,  inhuman,  cruel  treatment  and  punishment  or  treatment  and  punishment infringing  upon  honour and dignity shall be impermissible.

3.   Physical or mental coercion of a person detained or otherwise restricted in his/her liberty is

impermissible. (27. 12. 2006 N 4136)

Article 18

1.  Liberty of an individual is inviolable.

2.   Deprivation  of  liberty  or  other  restriction  of  personal  liberty  without  a  court decision  shall  be  impermissible.

3.    An  arrest  of  an  individual  shall  be  permissible  by  a  specially  authorised  official in  the  cases  determined by law. Everyone arrested or otherwise restricted in his/her liberty shall be brought before  a competent court not later than 48 hours. If, within next 24 hours, the court fails to adjudicate upon  the detention or another type of restriction of liberty, the individual shall immediately be released.

4.  Deleted (27.12.2006 N 4136)

5.  An arrested or detained person shall be informed about his/her rights and the grounds for restriction  of his/her liberty upon his/her arrest or detention. The arrested or detained person may request for the  assistance of a defender upon his/her arrest or detention, the request shall be met.

6.  The term of arrest of a suspect in the commission of a crime shall not exceed 72 hours and the term  of detention on remand of an accused shall not exceed 9 months.

7.   The  violation  of  the  requirements  of  the  present  Article  shall  be  punishable  by law.  A  person  arrested or detained illegally shall have the right to receive a compensation.

Article 19

1.  Everyone has the right to freedom of speech, thought, conscience, religion and belief.

2.  The persecution of a person on the account of his/her speech, thought, religion or belief as well as  the compulsion to express his/her opinion about them shall be impermissible.

3.  The restriction of the freedoms enumerated in the present Article shall be impermissible unless their  manifestation infringes upon the rights of others.

Article 20

1. Everyone’s private life, place of personal activity, personal records, correspondence, communication  by telephone or other technical means, as well as messages received through technical means shall be  inviolable.  Restriction  of  the  aforementioned  rights shall  be  permissible  by  a  court  decision  or  also  without such decision in the case of the urgent necessity provided for by law.

CHAPTER THREE

The Parliament of Georgia  Article 48

The  Parliament  of  Georgia  shall  be  the  supreme  representative  body  of  the country,  which  shall  exercise legislative power, determine the principle directions of domestic and foreign policy, exercise  control over the activity of the Government within the framework determined by the Constitution and  discharge other powers.

Article 481 (09/24/2009 N 1675)

 

1. The seat of the Parliament of Georgia  shall be at the cities of Tbilisi and Kutaisi. The Plenary sessions of the Parliament shall be conducted only in the city of Kutaisi.

2. The temporary change of the seat of the Parliament of Georgia in the purpose of calling the sitting or session is permissible only in  state of emergency and martial law.

 

 

Article 49

1.  Before the creation of the appropriate  conditions determined by the article 4 of the Constitution of Georgia  the Parliament of Georgia shall consist of 75 members of the Parliament elected by a proportional  system and 75 members of Parliament elected by a majority system for a term of four years on the  basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. (12.03. 2008 N 5853 –I s)

2.  A citizen, who has attained the age of 25, having the right to vote, may be elected a member of the  Parliament.

3.   The  internal  structure  of  the  Parliament  and  procedure  of  its  activity  shall  be determined  by  the  Regulations of the Parliament.

4.   The  current  expenditure  for  the  Parliament  of  Georgia  in  the  State  Budget comparatively  to  the  amount  of  budgetary  means  of  the  previous  year  may  be reduced  only  by  the  prior  consent  of  the  Parliament. The Parliament shall adopt a decision itself on the distribution of the budgetary means of  the Parliament in the State Budget. (6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 50

1. A political association of citizens registered in accordance with a procedure determined by law,  the initiative of which is confirmed by the signatures of  electors in accordance with the Organic Law of Georgia or which has a  representative in the Parliament at the time elections are scheduled, shall have the right to stand for the  elections.  The number of the signatures of electors determined by the Organic Law of Georgia shall not exceed 1% of number of electors. Rules and conditions for participation in the election through the majoritarian system shall be  determined by the election legislation (12.03. 2008 N 5853 ).

1.      The mandates of the members of the Parliament shall be distributed only among those political associations and electoral blocks, which obtained at least five per cent of the votes of the electors, participated in the elections held under the proportional system. Rules of distribution of the mandates shall be determined by the election legislation.  (12.03. 2008 N 5853)

21.        Regular  parliamentary  elections  shall  be  held  in  October  of  the  year  when  the Parliament’s  term of office expires. The President of Georgia shall fix the date of elections within not later than 60  days before the elections.  (27.12.2006 N 4133)

3.         If  the  date  of  holding  the  elections  coincides  with  a  state  of  emergency  or martial  law,  the  elections shall be held not later than 60 days after the state has been lifted. The President of Georgia  shall  fix  the  date  of  elections  upon  lifting  of  the  state  of emergency  or  martial  law.  In  case  of  dissolution of the Parliament, extraordinary elections shall be held on the 60th day after enforcement of  the  order  on  the  dissolution  of  the Parliament,  the  date  of  which  shall  be  fixed  by  the  President  of  Georgia upon enforcement of the order on the dissolution of the Parliament. (27.12.2006 N 4133)

31.        The Parliament shall terminate the activity upon the enforcement of the order of the President  on  the  dissolution  of  the  Parliament.  From  the  enforcement  of  the order  of  the  President  on  the  dissolution  of  the  Parliament  to  the  first  convocation of  the  newly  elected  Parliament  the   dissolved  Parliament shall assemble only in case of declaration of a state of emergency or martial law by the  President to decide on the issues of prolongation or/and approval a state of emergency or martial law.  In case the Parliament is not assembled within 5 days or does not approve (prolong) the order of the  President on the declaration (prolongation) of a state of emergency, the announced state of emergency  shall be cancelled. In case the Parliament does not approve the order of the President on the declaration  (prolongation) of a state of martial law within 48 hours, the state of  martial law shall be cancelled.  Convocation of the Parliament shall not result in restoration of the offices and salaries of the members  of the Parliament. The Parliament shall terminate an activity upon the adoption of a decision on the  above mentioned issues.(6.02.2004.N 3272)

4.  The authority of the Parliament shall be terminated upon the first convocation of the newly elected  Parliament.

5.   The election procedure of a  member of the Parliament  as well as inadmissibility to stand for the  elections shall be determined by the Constitution and the Organic Law.

Article 51

The  first  sitting  of  the  newly  elected  Parliament  of  Georgia  shall  be  held  within  20 days  after   the  elections. The day of the first sitting shall be scheduled by the President of Georgia. The Parliament  shall begin its work if the authority of not less than two thirds of the members of the Parliament is  confirmed.

Article 511

The Parliament shall be dissolved by the President only in cases determined by the Constitution, save  for:

a.  within six months from the holding of the elections of the Parliament;

b. discharging of an authority determined by Article 63 of the Constitution by the Parliament;

c.  in time of a state of emergency or martial law;

d. within the last 6 months of the term of office of the President of Georgia.

(6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 52

1.  A member of the Parliament of Georgia shall be a representative of the whole Georgia. He/she shall   enjoy a free mandate and his/her recall shall be impermissible.

2.  Arrest or detention of a member of the Parliament, the search of his/her apartment, car, workplace or  his/her person shall be permissible only by the consent of the Parliament, except in the cases  when  he/she is caught flagrante  delicto which shall immediately be notified  to the Parliament. Unless the  Parliament gives the consent, the arrested or detained member of the Parliament shall immediately be  released. (23.04.2004, N 6)

3.  A member of the Parliament shall have the right not to testify on the fact disclosed to him/her as to a  member   of   the   Parliament.   Seizure   of   written   materials  connected   with   this   matter   shall   be  impermissible. The right shall also be reserved to a member of the Parliament after the termination of  his/her office.

4.   A  member  of  the  Parliament  shall  not  be  proceeded  on  the  account  of  the ideas  and  opinions  expressed by him/her in and outside the Parliament while performing his/her duties.

5.   The  conditions  of  unimpeded  exercise  of  the  authority  by  a  member  of  the Parliament  shall  be  guaranteed. On the basis of the application of a member of the Parliament the state bodies shall ensure  his/her personal security.

6.  The creation of impediments to the discharge of the duties by a member of the Parliament shall be  punishable by law.

Article 53

1.  A member of the Parliament shall not be entitled to hold any position in public office or engage in  an entrepreneurial activity. The conflict of interests shall be determined by law.

2.  In case of a violation of the requirements set out in the preceding paragraph, the office of a member  of the Parliament shall be terminated.

3.  A member of the Parliament shall receive remuneration as determined by law.

Article 54

1.  The Parliament shall decide about the issue of the recognition or pre-term termination of the office  of a member of the Parliament. The decision of the Parliament may be appealed to the Constitutional  Court.

2.  The office of a member of the Parliament shall be pre-term terminated in the following cases:

a.  resignation from office by a personal application;

b. a final judgment of conviction is rendered by a court against him/her;

c.  recognition by a court as legally incapable, missing or dead;

d.   occupation  of  a  position  or  engagement  in  an  activity  incompatible  with the  status  of  a  member of the Parliament;

e.  loss of Georgian citizenship;

f. failure to participate in the work of the Parliament for a period of four months without a good  reason;

g. death.

Article 55

1.  The Parliament of Georgia for the term of its authority, in accordance with a procedure established  by the Regulations of the Parliament shall elect the President and the Vice-Presidents of the Parliament  by a secret ballot, inter alia, one from the members of the Parliament elected respectively in Abkhazia (10. 10. 2002 N 1682)  and the Autonomous Republic of Ajara upon the submission of the latter (20.04.2000 N 260).

2.   The  President  of  the  Parliament  shall  lead  the  work  of  the  Parliament,  ensure free  expression  of  opinions,  sign  acts  adopted  by  the  Parliament,  perform  other authorities  provided  for  by  the  Regulations of the Parliament.

3.   A  Vice-President  shall  perform  the  responsibilities  of  the  President  under  the instructions  of  the  latter, in case of inability of the President to discharge his/her authority or his/her dismissal.

4.   The  President  of  the  Parliament  shall  exercise  all  administrative  functions  in  the House  of  the  Parliament in accordance with a procedure provided for by the Regulations of the Parliament.

Article 56

1.  With the view of the preliminary preparation of the legislative issues, facilitating the implementation  of  decisions,  controlling  the  activities  of  the  bodies  accountable before  the  Parliament  and  the  Government Committees shall be set up in the Parliament for the term of its authority.

2.   In  the  cases  defined  in  the  Constitution  and  the  Regulations  of  the  Parliament as  well  as  at  the  request of not less than one fourth of the deputies, investigative or other temporary commissions  shall  be  set  up  in the Parliament.  The  representation  of  the parliamentary  majority  in  such  a commission  shall not exceed half of the total number of the commission members.

3.  At the request of the investigative commission, appearance before its sitting and submission of the  documents necessary for examination of the issue shall be obligatory.

Article 57

1.  With the view of organising the work of the Parliament, a Bureau of the Parliament shall be set up.  It shall  consist of the President  of  the  Parliament  of Georgia,  the Vice-Presidents,  Presidents  of the   Parliamentary Committees and Parliamentary Factions.

2.   The  issues  concerning  the  appointment  of  the  officials  as  defined  by  the Constitution  shall  be  discussed  by  the  Bureau  upon  the  basis  of  the  conclusion  of the  respective  Committees  and  in  accordance with a procedure provided for by the Regulations. The conclusion shall be submitted to the  President  and  the  Parliament.  The Bureau  shall  adopt  decisions  on  the  issues  relating  to  the  organisation of the work of the Parliament.

Article 58

1.  The members of the Parliament shall be entitled to unite in a Parliamentary Faction. The number of  the members of the Parliamentary Faction shall be not less than six.  (10. 10. 2008. N 343)

2.  The formation and functioning procedure of a faction and its authority shall be determined by law  and the Regulations of the Parliament.

Article 59

1.  A member of the Parliament shall be entitled to apply with a question to the bodies accountable to  the Parliament, a member of the Government, the mayor of the city, the heads of executive bodies of  the territorial units of any level, state institutions and to receive answers from them.

2.   A group of at least ten members of the Parliament or a Parliamentary Faction shall be entitled to  apply with a question to any body accountable to the Parliament, the Government, a particular member  of the Government the latter being obliged to answer the raised questions at a sitting of the Parliament.  The answer may become a matter of discussion of the Parliament.

3.  The Parliament shall be authorised to raise a question of official liability of a particular member of  the Government before the Prime Minister. In case the Prime Minister does not dismiss a member of  the Government, he/she shall submit his/her motivated decision to the Parliament within two weeks.

(6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 60

1.  Sittings of the Parliament shall be public. Under the decision of the majority of the members of the  Parliament present, the Parliament shall be entitled to declare a sitting or a part thereof closed while  discussing a particular issue.

2.  A member of the Government, an official elected, appointed or approved by the Parliament, shall be  entitled and in case of request shall be obliged to attend the sittings of the Parliament, its Committee or  Commission,  to  answer  the  raised  questions  at  a sitting  and  submit  an  account  of  an  activity.  At  a  request   such   an   official   shall  be   heard   by   the   Parliament,   Committee   or   Commission.

(6.02.2004.N3272)

3.  Voting shall always be by open or individual except for the cases defined in the Constitution or law.

4.  The minutes of the Parliament, except for secret matters, shall be published in the official gazette of  the Parliament.

Article 61

1.  The Parliament of Georgia shall assemble ex officio for a regular session twice a year. The autumn  session shall open on the first Tuesday of September and close on the third Friday of December. The  spring session shall open on the first Tuesday of February and close on the last Friday of June.

2.  The President of Georgia at the request of the President of the Parliament, not less than one fourth of  the members of the Parliament or on his/her own initiative during the period between regular sessions  shall convene an special session of the Parliament and in the duration of a regular session – a special  sitting. If within 48 hours after such a written submission was made, the President fails to issue the act  of  convocation,  the  Parliament shall  be  obliged  to  start  its  work  within  the  following  48  hours  in  accordance with its Regulations.

3.  Special sitting of the Parliament shall follow a specific agenda and it shall close upon the exhaustion  of the agenda.

4. From the declaration of a state of emergency or martial law by the President, the Parliament shall  assemble within 48 hours. The Parliament shall work until the end of the state.

Article 62

Decision  of  the  Parliament  on  the  issues  of  war  and  peace,  state  of  emergency  or martial  law  and  issues  determined  by  Article  46  of  the  Constitution  shall  be adopted  by  the  majority  of  the  total  number of the members of the Parliament.

Article 63

1.  Under the circumstances defined in the second paragraph of Article 75, not less than one third of the  total number of the members of the Parliament shall be entitled to raise the question of the dismissal of   the President of Georgia in accordance with impeachment procedure. The case shall be submitted to  the Supreme Court or Constitutional Court for a conclusion.

2.  If, by its conclusion, the Supreme Court confirmed corpus delicti in the act of the President or the  Constitutional Court confirmed the violation of the Constitution, after having discussed the conclusion  the Parliament shall adopt a decision by the majority of votes of the total number of the members of  the Parliament on putting the issue of impeachment of the President to the vote.

3.   The  President  shall  be  deemed  to  be  dismissed  from  the  office  in  accordance with  impeachment  procedure, if not less than two thirds of the total number of the members of the Parliament supported  the decision.

4.  The issue shall be deemed stricken off if the Parliament fails to adopt the decision within a term of

30  days. Bringing of the same charge against the President shall be impermissible during the following  one year.

5.   Discussion  of  the  charge  brought  against  the  President  and  the  adoption  of  the decision  in  the  Parliament shall be impermissible during war, a state of emergency or martial law.

Article 64

1.  In case of the violation of the Constitution or/and commitment of the  criminal offences, not less than one third of the total number of the members of the Parliament shall be entitled to raise  the  question  about  the  dismissal  in  accordance  with  impeachment procedure  of  the  President  of  the  Supreme Court, members of the Government, the President of the Chamber of  Control and members of the Council of National Bank.   (10. 10. 2008. N 344)

2.   After  having  received  the  conclusion  in  accordance  with  a  procedure  envisaged in  the  second  paragraph of Article 63, the Parliament shall be authorised to dismiss the officials listed in the first  paragraph of the present Article by the majority of the total number of the members of the Parliament.  The requirements of the fourth paragraph of Article 63 shall apply to such cases as well.

Article 65

1.   The Parliament of Georgia by the majority of the total number of the members of the Parliament  shall ratify, denounce and annul the international treaties and agreements.

2.     Apart  from  the  international  treaties  and  agreements  providing  for  ratification,  it shall  also  be  obligatory to ratify an international treaty and agreement which:

a.   provides  for  accession  of  Georgia  to  an  international  organisation  or intergovernmental  union;

b. is of a military character;

c.  pertains to the territorial integrity of the state or change of the state frontiers;

d. is related to borrowing or lending loans by the state;

e.  requires a change of domestic legislation, adoption of necessary laws and acts with force of  law with the view of honouring the undertaken international obligations.

3.  The Parliament shall be notified about the conclusion of other international treaties and agreements.

4.  In case of lodging a constitutional claim or a submission with the Constitutional Court, ratification  of the respective international treaty or agreement shall be impermissible before adjudication by the  Constitutional Court.

Article 66

1. A draft law or a draft resolution shall be deemed to be adopted if it is supported by the majority of  the  members  of  the  Parliament  present,  but  not  be  less  than  one  third of  the  total  number  of  the  members of Parliament unless the Constitution determines another procedure for the adoption of the  draft law or draft resolution.

11. A Constitutional Agreement shall be deemed approved if it is supported by not less than three-fifth  of the total number of the members of the Parliament. (30.03.2001, N 826)

2.  A draft Organic Law shall be deemed adopted if it is supported by more than half of the number of  the members of the Parliament on the current nominal list.

3.  The consent of the Parliament shall be adopted in the form of a resolution unless another procedure  is defined by the Constitution.

4.    The  procedure  for  the  adoption  of  other  decisions  shall  be  defined  by  the Regulations  of  the  Parliament.

Article 67

1.  The President of Georgia only in the exclusive cases, the Government, a member of the Parliament,  a   Parliamentary   Faction,   a   Parliamentary   Committee,   the   higher  representative   bodies   of   the  Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, the Autonomous Republic of Ajara, not less than 30,000 electors   shall have the right to legislative initiative.

2.  At the request of the President of Georgia, the Parliament shall give the priority to the discussion of  a draft law submitted by the former.

3.  In case the Government does not submit the remarks with regard to a draft law considering in the  Parliament within a term provided for by law, the draft law shall be deemed approved.

(6.02.2004.N3272)

 

Article 68

1.  A draft law adopted by the Parliament shall be submitted to the President of Georgia within a term  of seven days. (6.02.2004.N 3272)

2.   The  President  shall  sign  and  promulgate  the  law  within  a  term  of  ten  days  or return  it  to  the  Parliament with reasoned remarks.

3.  If the President returns the draft law to the Parliament, the latter shall put to the vote the remarks of  the President. For the adoption of the remarks the same number of votes shall suffice as determined for  this kind of draft law by Article 66 of the Constitution. If the remarks are adopted, the final redaction  of the draft law shall be submitted to the President who shall sign and promulgate it within a term of  seven days.

4.  If the Parliament rejects the remarks of the President, the initial redaction of the draft law shall by  put to the vote. A law or an Organic Law shall be deemed to be adopted if it is supported by not less  than  three  fifths  of  the  number  of  the  members  of  the Parliament  on  the  current  nominal  list.  The  constitutional amendment shall be deemed to be passed if it is supported by not less than two thirds of  the total number of the members of the Parliament.

5.   If  the  President  fails  to  promulgate  the  draft  law  within  the  defined  term,  the President  of  the  Parliament shall sign and promulgate it.

6.  A law shall enter into force on the fifteenth day after its official promulgation unless another term is  defined.

CHAPTER FOUR

The President of Georgia

 

Article 69

1.  The President of Georgia shall be the Head of State of Georgia. (6.02.2004.N3272)

2.  The President of Georgia shall lead and exercise the internal and foreign policy of the state. He/she  shall ensure the unity and integrity of the country and the activity of the state bodies in accordance  with the Constitution.

3.  The President of Georgia shall be the higher representative of Georgia in foreign relations.

Article 70

1.                 The President of Georgia shall be elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by  secret  ballot  for  a  term  of  five  years.  The  same  person  may  be elected  the  President  only  for  two  consecutive terms.

2.                 Any  person  may  be  elected  the  President  of  Georgia  if  he/she  is  a  native-born  citizen  of  Georgia, having the right to vote, has attained the age of 35, has lived in Georgia for at least fifteen  years and lives in Georgia by the day on which the election is scheduled.

3.The right to nominate a candidate to the office of the President shall be vested with a political  association of citizens or a stirring group. The nomination shall be confirmed by the signatures of the electors determined by the Organic Law of Georgia. The number of the signatures of the electors determined by the Organic Law shall not exceed 1% of the number of electors. (12.03. 2008 N 5853)

4.                 A candidate shall be deemed to be elected if he/she has obtained more than half of the votes of  participants. (6.02.2004.N3272)

5.                 If no candidate has received the required number of votes in the first round, a second round of  elections  shall  be  held  in  two  weeks  after  an  official  announcement of  the  first  round  results.  (27.12.06 N 4133)

6.                 Two candidates having the best results in the first round shall be put to the vote in the second  round. The candidate who received more votes shall be deemed to be elected.(6.02.2004.N3272)

7.                 If only one candidate took part in the first round, who did not receive the necessary number of  votes,  or  if  no  President  was  elected  in  the  second  round,  new elections  shall  be  held  within  two  months from the date of elections. (27.12.2006 N 4133)

8.                 No election shall be held in case of a state of emergency or martial law.

9.                 Regular  elections  for  Presidency  shall  be  held  in  October  of  the  calendar year  when  the  presidential authority expires. The President of Georgia shall fix the date of the elections not later than  within 60 days before the elections. (27.12.2006 N 4133)

10.              The procedure and conditions of the election of the President as well as the inadmissibility to   participate  in  election  as  a  candidate shall  be  determined by  the Constitution  and  the  Organic  Law. (20.07.1999 N 2224)

Article 71

1.         Before  taking  up  office  the  new  President  shall  make  a  programme  speech and  take  the  following oath:

“I, the President of Georgia, before the God and the Nation, declare to observe the Constitution of  Georgia,  defend  the  independence,  unity  and  indivisibility  of the  country,  to  perform  faithfully  the  duties of the President, to take care for the security and welfare of the citizens of my country and for  the revival and might of my Nation and Fatherland”.

2. The ceremony envisaged in the first paragraph shall take place on the third Sunday after the day of  the election of the President.

Article 72

The President of Georgia shall not have the right to hold any other position except for a party position,  engage  in  entrepreneurial  activity,  receive  salary  or  another permanent  remuneration  for  any  other  activity. (6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 73

1.        The President of Georgia shall:

a)     conclude  international  agreements  and  treaties,  negotiate with  foreign states; appoint  and  dismiss ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives of Georgia with the consent of  the Parliament;  accredit ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives of foreign states  and international organisations; (27.12.2006 N 4133)

a1) conclude a constitutional agreement with the Apostle Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia on behalf of the state of Georgia; (30.03.2001, N 826)

b)     appoint the Prime Minister,  give the Prime Minister consent to appoint a member of the  Government – a Minister; (6.02.2004.N3272)

c)     be  entitled,  on  his/her  own  initiative  or  in  other  cases  envisaged  by  the Constitution,  to  dissolve the Government, dismiss the Ministers of Internal Affairs, Defense and Justice of Georgia.

(10.10.2008 N 344))

d)     accept the resignation of the Government, a member of the Government and other officials  as  determined  by  law,  shall  be  entitled  to  require  the  Government,  a member  of  the  Government to perform their official duties until the appointment of a new composition of  the Government or a new member of the Government;(6.02.2004.N3272)

e)     e. give the Government consent to submit the State Budget of Georgia to the Parliament;

(6.02.2004.N3272)

f)      f.  submit  the  Parliament  the  officials,  appoint  and  dismiss  them  in  the  cases  and in  accordance with the procedure defined in the Constitution and law;

g)     g.  declare  a  martial  law  in  the  case  of  armed  attack  on  Georgia,  make  peace when   appropriate conditions exist and submit the decisions to the Parliament within 48 hours for  approval;

h)     h.  in  the  case  of  war  or  mass  disorder,  infringement  upon  the  territorial integrity  of  the  country, coup d’etat, armed insurrection, ecological disasters, epidemics or in other cases,  when state bodies are unable to normally exercise their Constitutional powers, shall declare  a state of emergency throughout the whole territory of the country or a certain part thereof  and submit this decision to the Parliament within 48 hours for approval. In the case of a  state of emergency issue the decrees having the force of law, which shall remain in force  until the end of the state of emergency, shall take emergency measures. The decrees shall  be  submitted  to  the Parliament  when  it  is  assembled.  Emergency  authorities  shall  apply  only to the territory where the state of emergency is declared for the reasons mentioned in  the present paragraph;

i)       with the consent of the Parliament, be entitled to suspend  the activity of the institutions of   self-government or other representative bodies of territorial units or dismiss them if their  activity  endangers  the  sovereignty,  territorial  integrity  of  the  country  or  the exercise  of  constitutional authority of state bodies;

j)       issue decrees and orders on the basis of the Constitution and law;

k)     sign and promulgate  laws in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the Constitution;

l)       decide about the matters of citizenship, granting asylum;

m)   award   state   honours,   higher   military   ranks,   special   and   honorary   titles  and   higher  diplomatic ranks;

n)     grant pardon to convicted persons.

o)     dissolve the Parliament in accordance with a procedure and in the cases established by the  Constitution. (6.02.2004.N3272)

p)     Deleted (27.12.2006 N 4133)

q)     from  the  dissolution  of  the  Parliament  to  the  first  convocation  of  the  newly elected  Parliament, in the exclusive cases, be entitled to issue a decree having the force of law on  tax  and  budgetary  issues,  which  shall  be  invalid  in  case  it  is  not approved  by  the  newly  elected Parliament within a month  from the first convocation; (6.02.2004.N3272)

r)   be entitled to appoint the Prime Minister and give his/her consent for the appointment of  the ministers under the circumstances defined in  subparagraphs “a”-“d” of Article 511 in  case  of  non-declaration  of  confidence   to  the  composition of  the  Government  by  the  Parliament within a term established by the Constitution. Within a month from the end of  the  above  mentioned circumstances  the  President  shall  re-submit  the  composition  of  the Government to the Parliament for confidence. (6.02.2004.N3272)

1.   The  President  shall  schedule  the  date  of  elections  of  the  Parliament  and representative  bodies   in  accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

2.                 The President of Georgia shall be authorised to suspend or abrogate acts of the Government  and the bodies of the executive power, if they are in contradiction with the Constitution of Georgia,  international treaties and agreements, laws and the normative acts of the President. (6.02.2004.N3272)

3.                 The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Georgia. He/she  appoints  members  of  the  National  Security  Council,  and  appoints and  dismisses  the  Chief  of  the  General Staff of the Armed Forces of Georgia, other commanders; (27.12.2006 N 4136)

4.                 The President shall be authorised to address the people and the Parliament. Once a year he/she  shall submit a report to the Parliament on the most important state issues.

5.  The President shall exercise other powers determined by the Constitution and law.

Article 74

1.   At  the  request  of  the  Parliament  of  Georgia,  of  not  less  than  200,000  electors or  on  his/her  own  initiative the President of Georgia shall schedule a referendum concerning the issues determined by the  Constitution and the Organic Law within 30 days after receiving such a request.

2.  The referendum shall not be held with the view of adopting or repealing law, in terms of amnesty or  pardon,  ratification  or  denunciation  of  international  treaties  and agreements,  as  well  as  the  issues  restricting the basic constitutional rights and freedoms of individuals.

3.  Issues related to the scheduling and holding referendum shall be determined by the Organic Law.

Article 75

1.   The  President  of  Georgia  shall  enjoy  personal  immunity.  While  holding  his/her position,  his/her  detention or proceeding shall be impermissible.

2.  In case of the violation of the Constitution, commission of high treason and other criminal offence,  the Parliament shall be authorised to dismiss the President in accordance with a procedures of Article

63  of the Constitution and in accordance with a procedures determined by the Organic Law if:

a.  the violation of the Constitution is confirmed by a judgment of the Constitutional Court;

b.  corpus delicti of high treason and other criminal offence is confirmed by a conclusion of theSupreme Court.

Article 76

1.  In case of inability to discharge the authority of the President of Georgia or pre-term termination of   his/her  office,  the  President  of  the  Parliament  shall  exercise  the responsibilities  of  the  President  of  Georgia, whereas in case the President of  the Parliament is unable  to discharge  the authority of the  President of Georgia,  as well as  if the Parliament is dissolved the Prime Minister shall  exercise the  responsibilities  of  the President  of  Georgia.  During  the  period  of  discharging  the  authority  of  the President of Georgia by the President of the Parliament, one of the Vice-Presidents shall perform the  duties  of  the  President  of  the  Parliament.  During  the  period  of discharging  the  authority  of  the  President of Georgia by the Prime Minister a member of the Government having the authority of the first  Vice-Prime Minister shall perform the duties of the Prime Minister.  (11.03.2008 N 5833)

2.  A person acting as the President shall not be entitled to use the rights defined in subparagraphs c)  and i) of the first paragraph of Article 73 and the rights defined in the first paragraph of Article 74 and  dissolve  the  Parliament  as  well.  (6.02.2004 N 3277)

3.   The  presidential  election  shall  be  held  within  45  days  after  the  termination  of the  office  of  the  President. The Parliament shall ensure the holding of election.

Article 761 Deleted (10. 10. 2008. N 344)

Article 77

The administration of the President of Georgia shall be established on purpose to promote the exercise  of the authority of the President of Georgia. The President of Georgia shall appoint and dismiss the  head  of  the  administration  of  the  President  of  Georgia,  determine  a  structure  and  a  procedure  of  activity of the administration. (6.02.2004.N3272)

CHAPTER FOUR1

The Government of Georgia

(6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 78

1.                  The Government shall ensure the exercise of the executive power, the internal and foreign policy of  the state in accordance with the legislation of Georgia. The Government shall be responsible before the  President and the Parliament of Georgia.

2.   The Government shall be composed by the Prime Minister and the Ministers. The State Minister  (the State Ministers) may be in the composition of the Government. The Prime Minister shall charge  one  of  the  members  of  the  Government  with  the  exercise of  the  responsibilities  of  the  first Vice  Prime  Minister, also one or more members  – to exercise the responsibility of the Vise-Prime. The Government and the members of the Government shall withdraw the authority before  the President of Georgia. (11.03.2008 N 5833)

21 The rules of  charging to exercise the responsibilities  of the first Vice-Prime and the Vice—prime shall be determined by the Law. (11.03.2008 N 5833)

3.                  The Government shall adopt a decree and a resolution on the basis of the constitution, laws and the  normative acts of the President and for their realization thereof, which shall be signed by the Prime  Minister.

4.                  The  President  of  Georgia  shall  be  authorised  to  convene  and  preside  over the  sittings  of  the  Government with  regard to  the  issues  of  exclusive  state importance.  Decision adopted at  the  sitting  shall be formed by the act of the President.

5.  The structure, authority, and a procedure of the activity of the Government shall be determined by  the Constitution and law, the draft of which shall be submitted to the Parliament by the Government by  the consent of the President.

6.  The Government shall be authorised to retire by its own decision.

7.    The  authority  of  the  Government  shall  begin  upon  the  appointment  of  the members  of  the  Government   in   accordance   with   a   procedure   and   in   cases  established   by   the   Constitution.

(6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 79

1.The Prime Minister shall be the head of the Government.

2.   The Prime Minister shall determine the directions of the activity of the Government, organise the  activity of the Government, exercise co-ordination and control over the activity of the members of the  Government, submit report on the activity of the Government to the President and be responsible for  the activity of the Government before the President and the Parliament of Georgia.

3.  At the request of the Parliament the Prime Minister shall submit an account to it on the realisation of  the governmental program.

4.  The Prime Minister within his/her authority shall issue an individual legal act- an order, exercise full  administrative functions in the building of the Government as well.

5.  The Prime Minister shall appoint other members of the Government by the consent of the President,  be authorised to dismiss the members of the Government.

6.  The Prime Minister shall appoint and dismiss other officials in accordance with a procedure and in  cases envisaged by law.

7.  Resignation of the Prime Minister or termination of his/her authority shall result in termination of  the authority of the other members of the Government. In case of resignation or dismissal of the other  member of the Government the Prime minister shall appoint a new member of the Government within  two weeks by the consent of the President of Georgia. (6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 80

1.   After  taking  the  oath  by  the  President  of  Georgia,  the  Government  shall withdraw  the  authority  before  the  President  of  Georgia.  The  President  shall  uphold the  withdrawal  of  the  authority  of  the  Government and be entitled to charge the Government with the exercise of the responsibilities until the  appointment of a new composition.

2.   The  President  of  Georgia  within  7  days  from  the  resignation,  dismissal  and withdrawal  of  the  authority  of  the  Government  after  the  consultations  with  the Parliamentary  Factions  shall  choose  a  candidate of the Prime Minister, whereas the candidate of the Prime Minister – the candidates of the  members of the Government by the consent of the President within a term of 10 days. Within 3 days

from  the  end  of  the  procedure  envisaged  by  the  first  sentence  of  this  paragraph the  President  of  Georgia shall submit the composition of the Government to the Parliament for confidence.

3.   Within  a  week  from  the  submission   of  the  composition  of  the  Government  by the  President  of  Georgia  the  Parliament  shall  consider  and  vote  the  issue  of declaration  of  confidence  to  the  composition  of  the  Government  and  the Governmental  program.  The  confidence  of  the  Parliament  shall be gained by the majority of the total number of the members of the Parliament. The members of  the Government shall be appointed within a term of three days from the declaration of confidence. The  Parliament shall be entitled to declare non-confidence to the composition of the Government and raise  a  question  of  recusal  of  a  particular  member  of  the Government  in  the  same  decision.  In  case  of  approval of the decision of the Parliament on the recusal by the President the recused  person shall not  be appointed in the same composition of the Government instead of a dismissed or resigned member.

4.  In case a composition of the Government and its governmental program do not gain the confidence  of  the  Parliament,  the  President  of  Georgia  shall  submit  the  same  or  a new  composition  of  the  Government to the Parliament within a term of a week. The Parliament shall exercise the procedure  provided for by paragraph 3 of this Article.

5.  In case a composition of the Government and the program of the Governmental thereof do not gain   the  confidence  of  the  Parliament  for  three  times,  the  President  of Georgia  shall  nominate  a  new  candidate of the Prime Minister within a term of 5 days or appoint the Prime Minister without consent  of  the  Parliament,  whereas  the  Prime Minister  shall  appoint  the  Ministers  by  the  consent  of  the  President of Georgia within a  term  of 5 days as well. In such  a case the President of Georgia shall  dissolve the Parliament and schedule extraordinary elections.

6  It shall be impermissible to put the issue of dismissal of the President of Georgia in accordance with   impeachment procedure during the procedures envisaged by this Article.(6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 81

1.  The Parliament shall be entitled to declare non-confidence to the Government by the majority of the  total number. Not less than one third of the total number of the members of the Parliament shall be  entitled to raise a question of declaration of non- confidence. After the declaration of non-confidence  to the Government the President of Georgia shall dismiss the Government or not approve the decision  of the Parliament. In case the Parliament declares non- confidence to the Government again not earlier  than 90 days ant not later than 100  days, the President of Georgia shall dismiss the Government or  dissolve the Parliament and schedule extraordinary elections. In case of circumstances provided for by  subparagraphs “a”-“d” of Article 511 re-voting of non-confidence shall be held within 15 days from the  end of these circumstances.

2.  The Parliament shall be entitled to raise the question of declaration of unconditional non-confidence  to the Government by a resolution. In case the Parliament declares non-confidence to the Government  by the majority of three-fifth of the total number of the members of the Parliament not earlier than 15  days  and  not  later  than  20  days  from the  adoption  of  the  resolution,  the  President  shall  dismiss  the  Government. In case the Parliament does not declare non-confidence to the Government, it shall be impermissible to put the question of non-confidence to the Government within next 6 months.

3.  In case of dismissal of the Government in accordance with a procedure provided for by paragraph 2  of  this Article  the  President  of Georgia  shall  not  be  entitled  to  appoint the same  person as  a  Prime  Minister  in  the  next  composition  of  the  Government  or nominate  the  same  candidate  of  the  Prime  Minister.

4.   The Prime Minister shall be  entitled  to put the question  of confidence of the Government  on the  draft laws on the State Budget, Tax Code and a procedure of the structure, authority and activity of the  Government  considering  at  the  Parliament.  The Parliament  shall  declare  the  confidence  to  the  Government  by  the  majority  of  the total  number.  In  case  the  Parliament  does  not  declare  the  confidence to the Government, the President of Georgia shall dismiss the Government or dissolve the Parliament within a week and schedule extraordinary elections.

5.  Voting the declaration of confidence shall be held within 15 days from the putting of the question.   Failure of voting during this term shall mean the declaration of confidence.

6.  A relevant draft law shall be deemed adopted upon the declaration of confidence to the Government  by the Parliament.

7.  It shall be impermissible to put the question of dismissal of the President of Georgia in accordance  with impeachment procedure during the procedures provided for by this Article. (6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 811

1.   After the declaration of confidence to the Government and its governmental program, in case  of  renewal of the first composition of the Government by one third, but not less than 5 members of the  Government, the President of Georgia shall submit a composition of the Government to the Parliament  for confidence within a week.

2.    Declaration  of  confidence  to  the  composition  of  the  Government  by  the Parliament  shall  be  exercised in accordance with a procedure established by Article 80 of the Constitution.

Article 812

1.  Ministries shall be created with the view of ensuring state government and state policy in particular  field of state and public life.

2.   Ministry  shall  be  headed  by  a  Minister  who  shall  adopt  decisions  independently on  the  matters  falling within his/her competence. A Minister shall issue orders on the basis of law, normative act of  the President or resolution of the Government and with the view of implementing them.

3.  The State Minister shall be appointed in accordance with a procedure established by the Constitution  with the view of fulfilling the state objects of exclusive importance.

4.   A  member  of  the  Government  shall  not  have  the  right  to  hold  any  position, except  for  a  party  position, either establish an enterprise, engage in entrepreneurial activity or receive a salary from any  other activity, with the exception of scientific and pedagogical activity.

5.  A member of the Government shall be entitled to resign.  (6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 813 11.03.2008 N 5833 – I s)

1.State Attorney – Governor is the representative of the President of Georgia and Government of Georgia in the administrative-territorial units.

2.State Attorney-Governor exercise control over the activity of the Local Self-Government and exercises any other rights provided by the laws of Georgia.

3. The rule of appointment and removal from the office of the State Attorney-Governor shall be determined by the law.

 

Article 814 (10. 10. 2008. N 344)

Departments of the prosecution are under the system of the ministry of Justice. The Minister of Justice is overseeing their operations. The rights, responsibilities, and operations of the prosecution office are defined by the law.

CHAPTER FIVE

 

Judicial Power

 

Article 82

1.    Judicial  power  shall  be  exercised  by  means  of  constitutional  control,  justice  and other  forms  determined by law.

2.  Acts of courts shall be obligatory for all state bodies and persons throughout the whole territory of  the country.

3.  The judiciary shall be independent and exercised exclusively by courts.

4.  A court shall adopt a judgment in the name of Georgia.

5.  The cases shall be considered by juries before the courts of general jurisdiction in accordance with a  procedure and in cases prescribed by law. (6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 83

1.    The  Constitutional  Court  of  Georgia  shall  be  the  judicial  body  of  Constitutional review.  Its  authority, the procedures of its creation and activity shall be determined by the Constitution and the  Organic Law.

2.  Justice shall be administered by general courts. Their system shall be determined by an organic law.  (27.12.06 N 4133)

3.  Introduction of a court martial shall be permissible at war and exclusively within the system of the  courts of general jurisdiction.

4.  Creation of either extraordinary or special courts shall be prohibited.

Article 84

1.   A judge shall be independent in his/her activity and shall be subject only to the Constitution and  law.  Any  pressure  upon  the  judge  or  interference  in  his/her  activity with  the  view  of  influencing  his/her decision shall be prohibited and punishable by law.

2.  The removal of a judge from the consideration of a case, his/her pre-term dismissal or transfer to  another position shall be permissible only in the circumstances determined by law.

3.  No one shall have the right to demand from a judge an account as to a particular case.

4.  All acts restricting the independence of a judge shall be annulled.

5.  Only a court shall be authorised to repeal, change or suspend a court judgment in accordance with a  procedure determined by law.

Article 85

1.  Cases before a court shall be considered at an open sitting. The consideration of a case at a closed  sitting shall be permissible only in the circumstances provided for by law. A court judgment shall be  delivered publicly.

2.  Legal proceedings shall be conducted in the state language. An individual not having a command of  the state language shall be provided with an interpreter. In the districts, where the population does have a

command of the state language, teaching of the state language and solution of the issues related  to the

legal proceedings shall be ensured.

3. The legal proceedings shall be exercised on the basis of equality of parties and the adversarial nature  of the proceedings.

Article 86

1.   A  judge  shall  be  a  citizen  of  Georgia  who  has  attained  the  age  of  28,  and  has the  highest  legal  education and at least five years experience in the practice of law.(27.12.2005, N 2496)

2.   A judge shall be designated on the position for a period of not less than ten years. The selection,  appointment or dismissal procedure of a judge shall be determined by law.

3.  The position of a judge shall be incompatible with any other occupation and remunerative activity,   except for pedagogical and scientific activities. A judge shall not be a member of a political party or  participate in a political activity. (27.12.2005, N  2496)

Article 861(27.12.2006 N 4133  shall come into force  after organizing the corresponding issues by the Organic Law)

1.                 The  Supreme  Council  of  Justice  of  Georgia  shall  be  set  up  to  appoint  and dismiss  judges  from/to office and for other purposes.

2.                 Half of the Supreme Council of Justice of Georgia shall be composed of members elected by a  self-government body of the judges of general courts of Georgia. Chairperson of the Supreme Court of  Georgia shall chair the Supreme Council of Justice of Georgia.

3.                 Powers  and  a  setting  up  procedure  of  the  Supreme  Council  of  Justice  of Georgia  shall  be  determined by an organic law.

Article 87

1.                 A  judge  shall  enjoy  personal  immunity.  Criminal  proceeding  of  a  judge, his/her  arrest  or  detention, the search of his/her apartment, car, workplace or his/her person shall be permissible by the  consent  of  the  President  of  the  Supreme  Court  of Georgia,  except  when  he/she  is  caught  flagrante delicto, which shall immediately be notified to the President of the Supreme Court of Georgia. Unlessthe  President  of  the Supreme  Court  gives  his/her  consent  to  the  arrest  or  detention,  the  arrested  or detained judge shall immediately be released.

2.                 The state shall ensure the security of a judge and his/her family.

Article 88

1.  The Constitutional Court of Georgia shall exercise the judicial power by virtue of the constitutional  legal proceedings.

2.  The Constitutional Court of Georgia shall consist of nine judges – the members of the Constitutional   Court. Three members of the Constitutional Court shall be appointed by the President of Georgia, three  members shall be elected by the Parliament by not less than three fifths of the number of the members  of the Parliament on the current nominal list, three members shall be appointed by the Supreme Court.  The  term of office of the members of the Constitutional Court shall be ten years. The Constitutional  28 Court  shall elect  the  President  of  the  Constitutional  Court  among  its  members  for  a  period  of  five  years. The President shall not be re-elected.

3.  A member of the Constitutional Court shall not be a person who has held this position before.

4.   A member of the Constitutional Court may be a citizen of Georgia who has attained the age of 30  and has the highest legal education. The selection, appointment and election procedure and the issue of  termination  of  the  office  of  the  members  of  the  Constitutional  Court  as well  as  other  issues  of  the  constitutional legal proceeding and the activity of the Constitutional Court shall be determined by law.

(27.12.2005, N 2496)

5.     A   member   of   the   Constitutional   Court   shall   enjoy   personal   immunity.   A  member   of   the  Constitutional  Court  shall  not  be  proceeded,  arrested  or  detained, nor  shall  his/her  apartment,  car,  workplace  or  his/her  person  be  subject  to  search without  the  consent  of  the  Constitutional  Court,  except   when   he/she   is   caught  flagrante   delicto,   which   shall   immediately   be   notified   to   the  Constitutional Court. Unless the  Constitutional Court gives its consent to the arrest or detention, an arrested or detained member shall immediately be released.

Article 89

1. The Constitutional Court of Georgia on the basis of a constitutional claim or a submission of the  President  of  Georgia,  the  Government,  not  less  than  one  fifth  of the  members  of  the  Parliament,  a  court,  the  higher  representative  bodies  the Autonomous  Republic  of  Abkhazia  and  the  Autonomous  Republic of Ajara, the Public Defender or a citizen in accordance with a procedure established by the  Organic Law:(6.02.2004.N3272)

a.  adjudicate upon the constitutionality of a Constitutional Agreement,  law, normative acts of   the  President  and  the  Government,  the  normative  acts  of the  higher  state  bodies  of  the  Autonomous Republic Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Ajara (6.02.2004.N3272)

b.  consider dispute on competence between state bodies;

c.  consider constitutionality of formation and activity of political associations of citizens;

d.   consider  dispute  on  constitutionality  of  provisions  on  referenda  and  elections as  well  as  dispute  on  constitutionality  of  referenda  and  elections  held  on  the basis  of  these  provisions;

(27.12.2005, N 2496)

e.  consider constitutionality of international treaties and agreements;

f. consider, on the basis of a claim of a person, constitutionality of normative acts in relation to  fundamental  human  rights  and  freedoms  enshrined  in  Chapter  Two of  the  Constitution;

(27.12.2005, N 2496)

f1.  consider  dispute  on  violation  of  the  Constitutional  Law  of  Georgia  on  the Status  of  the  Autonomous Republic of Ajara; (01.07.2004, N 306)

g. exercise other powers determined by the Constitution and the Organic Law of Georgia.

2. The judgment of the Constitutional Court shall be final. A normative act or a part thereof recognised  as  unconstitutional  shall  cease  to  have  legal  effect  from  the  moment  of the  promulgation  of  the  respective judgment of the Constitutional Court.

Article 90

1.  The Supreme Court of Georgia is the highest cassation court. (27.12.2005, N 2496)

2.  The President and the judges of the Supreme Court of Georgia shall be elected for a period of not  less than ten years by the Parliament by the majority of the number of the members of Parliament on  the current nominal list upon the submission of the President of Georgia.

3.  The authority, organisation of the Supreme Court of Georgia and the procedure of activity and of the  pre-term termination of the office of the judges of the Supreme Court shall be determined by law.

4.   The President and the members of the Supreme Court of Georgia shall enjoy personal immunity.  Criminal proceeding of the President or a judge of the Supreme Court, their arrest or detention, the  search  of  their  apartment,  car,  workplace  or  person  shall  be permissible  only  by  the  consent  of  the  Parliament, except when the President or a judge is caught flagrante delicto, which shall immediately  be notified to the Parliament. Unless the Parliament gives  its consent,  the arrested or detained shall  immediately be released.

Article 91

(deleted, 6.02.2004.N 3272)

CHAPTER SIX

State Finances and Control

 

Article 92

1.  The Parliament of Georgia by the majority of the number of the members of the Parliament on the   current nominal list shall annually adopt the Law on the State Budget, which shall be signed by the  President of Georgia.

2.  The procedure of the drafting and adoption of the State Budget shall be determined by law.

Article 93

1.  Only the Government of Georgia after the agreement with the committees of the Parliament on the  basic  data  and  directions  shall  be  authorised  to  submit  the  Draft Budget  to  the  Parliament  by  the  consent of the President of Georgia.

2.  The Government shall submit the Draft Budget of next year to the Parliament not later than three   months  before  the  end  of  the  budget  year.  Together  with  the  Draft Budget,  the  Government  shall  submit  a  report  on  the  progress  of  the  fulfilment  of the  State  Budget  of  the  current  year.  The  Government shall submit a report on the fulfilment of the State Budget to the Parliament for approval  not  later  than  three  months from  the  end  of  the  budget  year.  In  case  of  non-fulfilment  of  the  State  Budget the Parliament does not approve a report on the fulfilment of the State Budget, the President of  Georgia shall consider the issue of liability of the Government and inform the Parliament on his/her  founded decision within a month.

3.   The President shall  approve the  State Budget by a decree if it is not approved by the Parliament  within a term established by the Constitution in cases defined by subparagraphs “a”-“d” of Article 511 of the Constitution.

4.   The introduction of changes in the Draft Budget without the consent of the Government shall be   impermissible. The Government shall be authorised to request the Parliament for the additional state  expenditure, only if it indicates the sources of covering the latter.

5.  The Parliament shall be authorised to control the legality of expenditure of the State Budget and in  case  of  revealing  the  violation  make  a  request  on  suspension  of expenditure  of  the  budget  means  before the President of Georgia. In case of confirming of illegal expenditure the President shall adopt a  relevant decision.

6.  If the Parliament fails to adopt the Budget submitted in accordance with a procedure established by  paragraph 2 of this Article within three months, the President of Georgia shall be authorised to dismiss  the Government or dissolve the Parliament and schedule extraordinary elections.

7.  In case of dissolution of the Parliament due to unapproved State Budget the President shall approve  the State Budget by a decree and submit to the Parliament within a month from the recognition of the  authority of the newly elected Parliament.

8.   A  draft  law  which  results  in  increase  of  expenditure  of  the  State  Budget  of  the current  year,  reduction of an income or taking of the new financial obligations by the State, may be adopted by the  Parliament only after the consent of the Government, whereas the above mentioned laws with regard to  the  next  financial  year-  by  the Government  within  the  scope  of  the  basic  parameters  of  the  State  Budget agreed with the Parliament.

(6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 94

1.   The  payment  of  taxes  and  duties  shall  be  obligatory  in  the  amount  and  in accordance  with  a  procedure established by law.

2.   The  structure  of  taxes  and  duties  and  the  procedure  for  the  introduction  thereof shall  only  be  determined by law.

3.    Exemption  from  taxation  as  well  as  bearing  the  costs  from  the  state  treasury shall  only  be  permissible by law.

Article 95

1.  The monetary-credit system of Georgia shall be ensured by the National Bank of Georgia.

2.  The National Bank of Georgia shall work out and exercise monetary-credit and currency policy in  accordance with the main directions determined by the Parliament.

3.  The National Bank shall be the bank of banks and the banker of the Government of Georgia and its  fiscal agent.

4.  The National Bank shall be independent in its activity. The rights and duties, activity procedure and  guarantee of independence of the National Bank shall be determined by the Organic Law.

5.  The name of money and the monetary unit shall be determined by law. Only the National Bank shall  be authorised to money emission.

Article 96

1.  The Council of the National Bank shall be the higher body of the National Bank of Georgia. The  members  of  the  Council  of  the  National  Bank  shall  be  elected  for  a term  of  seven  years  by  the  Parliament by the majority of the number of the members of the Parliament on the current nominal list  upon the submission of the President of Georgia. The dismissal of the members of the Council of the  National Bank shall be permissible only under a decision of the Parliament in accordance with Article

64.

2.  The President of the National Bank shall be appointed and dismissed by the President of Georgia of  the Bank upon the submission of the Council of the National Bank among the members of the Council.

3.  The National Bank shall be responsible before the Parliament and shall annually submit a report on  its activity.

Article 97

1.  The Chamber of Control of Georgia shall supervise the use and expenditure of state funds and of  other material values. It shall also be authorised to examine activity of other state bodies of fiscal and  economic control, submit proposals on improving tax legislation to the Parliament.

2.    The  Chamber  of  Control  shall  be  independent  in  its  activity.  It  shall  be accountable  to  the  Parliament. The President of the Chamber of Control shall be elected for a term of five years by the  Parliament of Georgia by the majority of the number of the members of the Parliament on the current  nominal list upon the submission of the President of Georgia. The grounds and a procedure of his/her  dismissal shall be prescribed by the Constitution and law. (6.02.2004.N3272)

3.  The Chamber of Control shall submit a report to the Parliament regarding Government expenditure  twice a year while submitting the preliminary and final reports on the fulfilment of the Budget, and it  shall submit a report on its activity once a year.

4.    The  authority,  organisation  and  procedure  activity  and  guarantee  of  the independence  of  the  Chamber of Control shall be determined by law.

5.  Other bodies of state control shall be set up in accordance with law.

CHAPTER SEVEN  State Defence  Article 98

1.  Defensive war shall be a sovereign right of Georgia.

2.  Georgia shall have the armed forces for the defence of the independence, sovereignty and territorial  integrity of the country, as well as for the honouring its international obligations.

3. The types and the composition of the armed forces shall be determined by law. The structure of the  armed  forces  shall  be  approved  by  the  President  of  Georgia,  while the  strength  thereof  shall  be  approved by the Parliament by the majority of the number of the members of the Parliament on the  current nominal list upon the submission of the Council of National Security.

Article 99

1.   With the  view of organising the military construction and defence of the country, the Council of  National Security shall be set up which shall be guided by the President of Georgia.

2.   The  composition,  authority  and  procedure  activity  of  the  Council  of  National Security  shall  be  determined by the Organic Law.

Article 100

1.   The President of Georgia shall adopt a decision on the use of the armed forces and submit it to the  Parliament  within  48  hours  for  approval.  In  addition  the  use  of  the  armed forces  for  the  honouring   international obligations shall be impermissible without the consent of the Parliament of Georgia.

2.  For the purpose of state defence in the exclusive cases and in cases envisaged by law, the decision  about the entrance, use and movement of the armed forces of another state on the territory of Georgia  shall  be  adopted  by  the  President  of  Georgia.  The decision  shall  immediately  be  submitted  to  the  Parliament for approval and shall be enforced after the consent of the Parliament.

(6.02.2004.N3272)

Article 101

1.  Defence of Georgia shall be an obligation of every citizen of Georgia.

2.  Defence of the country and discharge of military service shall be a duty of every citizen being fit  thereupon. The form of the discharge of military service shall be determined by law.

CHAPTER EIGHT

Revision of the Constitution  Article 102

1.    The  following  shall  be  entitled  to  submit  a  draft  law  on  general  or  partial revision  of  the  Constitution:

a.  the President;

b.  more than half of the total number of the members of the Parliament;

c.  not less than 200,000 electors.

2.   A  draft  law on the revision  of the  Constitution  shall  be  submitted  to the Parliament,  which shall  promulgate the former for the public discussion. The Parliament shall begin the discussion of the draft  law after a month from its promulgation.

3.  The draft law on the revision of the Constitution shall be deemed to be adopted if it is supported by  at least two thirds of the total number of the members of the Parliament of Georgia.

CHAPTER NINE

Transitional Provisions  Article 104

1.  The Constitution of Georgia shall enter into force from the day of the recognition of the authority of  the newly elected President and the Parliament of Georgia.

2.   Articles  49,  50  and  70  of  the  Constitution  shall  enter  into  force  upon  the promulgation  of  the  Constitution.

Article 1041(23.02.2005, N 1010)

1.      Paragraph  1  of  Article  49  and  paragraph  1  of  Article  58  of  the  Constitution shall  enter  into  force upon the making of appropriate amendments and addenda to the Organic law of Georgia “The  Election Code of Georgia”.

2.      The composition of the Parliament of Georgia elected on 2004 before termination its authority,  as well as the necessary number of the members of the Parliament for the establishment of a faction  shall  be  determined  in  accordance  with  the  legislation acting  at  the  moment  of  the  election  of  this  Parliament.

3.      Regular  elections of the Parliament of Georgia  elected in 2008 shall  take place in May. The President of Georgia shall fix the  date of elections within  60 days before election .( 11.03.2008 N 5833 )

Article 104 2 (24.09.2009, N 1675)

The  authority of the member of the Parliament of Georgia elected  by the majoritarian system in 21 May 2008 election whose power was  pre-term  terminated by the statement of the Parliament according to article 54, paragraph2, subparagraph  of the Constitution of Georgia shall be restored  in case  the authority  of their substitutes has not been acknowledged and if they  give their consent by 1 January 2010.

Article 105

1.  A political association of citizens registered in accordance with a procedure established by law, the  initiative  of  which  is  confirmed  by  at  least  50,000  signatures  or  which had  a  representative  in  the  Parliament by the day of the adoption of the present Constitution, shall have the right to stand for the  election of 1995.

2.  Election under the proportional system shall be conducted with a single party list.

3.  A political association or an electoral block shall be entitled to nominate a candidate to the office of  a member of the Parliament before a majority election district, the candidate being at the same time on  its party list as well.

4.  The candidate having obtained most number of votes but not less than one third of the participants  to the ballot shall be deemed to be elected in the majority electoral district. If none of the candidates obtained the required number of votes in the first round, a second round  shall  be  held.  Two  candidates  having  the  best  results  shall  participate  in  the second  round.  The  candidate having obtained the most number of votes shall be deemed to be elected.

5.               The present Article shall enter into force upon the promulgation of the Constitution and shall remain  in force until the recognition of the authority of the newly elected Parliament.

Article 106

1.After  the  enforcement  of  the  Constitution,  only  the  legal  act  or  a  part  thereof, which  is  not  in  contradiction with the Constitution, shall have the legal force.

2. During  two  years  after  the  enforcement  of  the  Constitution,  the  President  of Georgia  and  the  Parliament  of  Georgia  shall  ensure  the  public  registration  of normative  acts  adopted  before  the  Constitution came into force and their compatibility with the Constitution and laws.

3.               During two years after the enforcement of the Constitution, the Parliament shall adopt the Organic  Laws envisaged by the Constitution or confirm the lawfulness of normative acts existing in the field.

Article 107

1.Before  the  adoption  of  the  Organic  Laws  on  judiciary  in  accordance  with  the Constitution,  the  current legislation on the judiciary shall remain in force.

2.               The  second  and third paragraphs  of  Article  18 of  the  Constitution  shall  enter into force  after the  adoption of the respective criminal procedures legislative acts.

3.               The Organic Law on the Constitutional Court shall be adopted before 1 February 1996.

Article 108

As an exception moving changes or addenda to the second paragraph of Article 102 of the Constitution  in terms of the complete restoration of jurisdiction on the whole territory of Georgia shall be possible  without  publication  of  the  draft  law  on  the  revision  of the  Constitution  for  the  general-public  discussion.

Article 109

1. The  Constitution  adopted  in  accordance  with  the  established  procedure  shall  be signed  and   promulgated by the Head of State of Georgia.

2.               The members of the Parliament of Georgia and the members of the Constitutional Commission shall  sign the text of the Constitution. After the enforcement of the Constitution, at least within a year, the  text of the Constitution shall publicly be displayed in the buildings of all local bodies of Georgia in  order the population become familiar with its contents.

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